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Farm surveying is the process of measuring and mapping out the position, height, size and boundary of an area of farmland.

(i) It helps to know the size or hectare of a farmstead
and the arrangement of land for proper usage without the risk of land degradation.
(ii) Farm surveying help to make proper use of resources available and also to project the maximum profit achieved.
(iii) Results of farm survey can be used as collateral for security loan from financial institutions.
(iv) Absolute and relative positions of points on the farm and earth’s surface can be determined.
(v) The topography or gradient of the farm land can also be determined.
(vi)It enables the farmer to lay his farm into plots.

(i) Ranging pole is used for setting a straight line durng farm surveying.
(ii) Gunter’s chain is used in taking shot or detailed measurement of length and breadth of farmland during surveying.
(iii) Prismatic compass is used to find out the bearing of the traversing and included angles between lands, waypoints and direction.
(iv) Measuring tape is used in measuring angular distances.
(v) Theodolite is used to measure horizontal or vertical angles or planes

(i) The initial cost of a machine is high. An idle machine is a waste.
(ii) Adoption of certain machines will lead to unemployment.
(iii) Machines are subject to break-down and lie idle when electricity fails (if it is electrically operated).
(iv) Depreciation charges are high; this will reduce the profit.
(v) Certain types of machines may become obsolete within a short span of time.


A – Sickle
B – Cutlass
C – Hoe

Uses of A:
(i) It is use for harvesting crops
(ii) cutting succulent forage chiefly for
feeding livestock.

Uses of B:
(i) For clearing bushes
(ii) For cutting trees or logs

Uses of C:
(i) For removing weed
(ii) For harvesting root crops I.e tuber

(i)Store or keep in a clean place
(ii) Wooden handles should be well set, strong and durable if defective they should replaced
(iii) Metal parts should be oiled or greased to prevent rusting
(iv) Sharpen if necessary before and after
use. Sharp tools make work easy


(i) It provides food for human
(ii) It checks soil erosion
(iii) It brings about vegetation cover
(iv) It brings about rainfall
(v) Forest improves soil fertility
(vi) It creates job opportunities

(i) Oganic manuring:
– It improves the activities of the soil micro organisms
– It improves soil fertility
– It improves yield

(ii) Bush burning:
– It exposes the soil to sunlight
– It destroys soil microorganisms
– It reduces soil fertility

(iii) Tillage:
– It enhances soil aeration
– It helps to mix the soil with organic matters
– It also improves the activities of the soil micro organisms

(iv) Clean clearing:
– It reduces the effects pof parasites and diseases
– It reduces soil fertility
– It helps for easy cultivation and harvest


pasture for grazing
A good pasture is critical to every grazing system. It has positive effects on the health of livestock and the long-term prod fire burn tgenuctivity and profitability of your business.
Improving pasture for grazing involves a variety of strategies and a coordinated approach. Native and sown (introduced) pastures are complex ecosystems affected by soil type and health, climate, tree cover, and management decisions.
To begin improving your pasture for grazing, you will need to:
understand pasture condition and growth
know how to select the right species for your land
know how to prepare and sow or seed a pasture.

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